Irish coffee. Кофе wikipedia

White coffee - Wikipedia

White coffee can refer to any of a number of different kinds of coffees or coffee substitutes worldwide.

Coffee with whitener[edit]

In many English-speaking countries, "white coffee" is used to refer to regular black coffee that has had milk, cream or some other "whitener" added to it, though the term is almost entirely unheard of in the US, where the same beverage might be called "coffee light" in the New York City area, "light coffee", "coffee with milk," or "regular coffee" in New England and New York City.[citation needed] Cream varieties, often called "creamers" in the US, can be made of dairy milk, corn syrup derivatives, soy, or nut products. Sweeteners used include cane sugar or artificial ingredients.

White coffee should be distinguished from café au lait, in that white coffee uses chilled or room-temperature milk or other whitener, while café au lait uses heated or steamed milk.

Other coffee drinks[edit]


In Indonesia, the term white coffee or kopi putih refers to the coffee beans which are roasted in shorter period than regular coffee beans. The shorter roasting period generate the lighter-colored coffee beans, called biji kopi putih or the white coffee beans. The white coffee beans are stiffer and different in taste than regular coffee beans. The white coffee has a savory and mild taste compared to its regular counterpart. Due to its shorter roasting time, white coffee has a higher concentration of caffeine.[1][2]


Lebanese white coffee "ahweh bayda" is a caffeine-free drink made from water, orange blossom water, and sweetened with sugar if desired. Although not the most common substitute for coffee it is occasionally served in lieu of coffee (Turkish coffee). Ahweh bayda is traditionally thought to have a soothing effect when taken.


In Malaysia, the original white coffee started in the town of Ipoh and was a drink made from beans roasted in margarine, ground, brewed and served with sweetened condensed milk. This style of coffee continues to be popular throughout the country. However, “white coffee” in Malaysia often simply refers to how the drink is prepared and presented - with added milk or creamer.

Overseas visitors finding the margarine-roasted coffee beans unorthodox (due to their slight caramelized flavor) are often misled into believing that there is a type of coffee bean endemic to Malaysia called the "white coffee bean". The beans used are invariably imported beans roasted to a light color.

Local coffee manufacturers now mix instant coffee powder with non-dairy creamer or whitener and sugar, and market the 3-in-1 mixture as white coffee as well. The mixture is preferred by Malaysians at home or in the office as a convenient easy-to-prepare coffee drink. The advisability, however, of consuming instant coffee mixed with non-dairy creamer and sugar daily is slowly coming into question, with some manufacturers now taking the sugar out of the mixture, and marketing the 2-in-1 mixture as sugar-free white coffee.

United States[edit]

In the United States, white coffee may also refer to coffee beans which have been roasted to the yellow roast level and when prepared as espresso produces a thin yellow brew, with a high acidic note. There is a debate that white coffee is more highly caffeinated than darker roasted coffee. In fact, the sublimation point of caffeine is 352 °F (178 °C), about one hundred degrees lower than the typical very dark roast. Coffee beans can catch fire at temperatures lower than 500 °F (260 °C).[3][4] White coffee is generally used only for making espresso drinks, not simple brewed coffee. With shorter roasting times, natural sugars are not caramelized within the coffee beans, leaving no bitter aftertaste. The flavor of white coffee is frequently described as nutllike, with pronounced acidity. White coffee is usually purchased pre-ground due to the fact that it is difficult to grind, even using a commercial grinder. For this reason, white coffee usually pours fast when using a commercial espresso machine. It is common for baristas to use the second pour rather than the first because it is believed to have more caffeine and a smoother flavor.


There is also a form of white coffee, native to Yemen, which refers to the ground shell of the coffee bean. This form of coffee earns its name from its color, and is brewed in the same manner as regular coffee, only with some spices added.


Irish coffee - Wikipedia

Irish coffee (Irish: caife Gaelach) is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar (some recipes specify that brown sugar should be used[1]), stirred, and topped with thick cream. The coffee is drunk through the cream. The original recipe explicitly uses cream that has not been whipped, although drinks made with whipped cream are often sold as "Irish coffee". The term "Irish coffee" is also sometimes used colloquially to refer to alcoholic coffee drinks in general.

Different variations of coffee cocktails pre-date the now-classic Irish coffee by at least 100 years, before Joe Sheridan, a head chef at the restaurant and coffee shop in the Foynes Airbase[2][3]Flying boat terminal building, County Limerick[4] played his part in 1942 or 1943[5] after a group of American passengers disembarked from a several-hour failed Atlantic crossing due to bad weather conditions[6] on a Pan Am Clipper flying boat. Sheridan added whiskey to the coffee to warm the passengers. After the passengers asked if they were being served Brazilian coffee, Sheridan told them it was "Irish coffee".[7][4][8]

Stanton Delaplane, a travel writer for the San Francisco Chronicle, brought Irish coffee to the United States after drinking it at Shannon Airport, when he worked with the Buena Vista Cafe in San Francisco to start serving it on November 10, 1952,[9] and worked with the bar owners Jack Koeppler and George Freeberg to recreate the Irish method for floating the cream on top of the coffee, sampling the drink one night until he nearly passed out.[10][11] The group also sought help from the city's then mayor, George Christopher, who owned a dairy and suggested that cream aged at least 48 hours would be more apt to float.[12] Delaplane popularized the drink by mentioning it frequently in his travel column, which was widely read throughout America. In later years, after the Buena Vista had served, by its count, more than 30 million of the drinks, Delaplane and the owners grew tired of the drink. A friend commented that the problem with Irish coffee is that it ruins three good drinks: coffee, cream, and whiskey.[13]

Joe Sheridan, continued working at the replacement, Shannon Airport at Rineanna.[6] Originally from Castlederg, County Tyrone, in 1952, Sheridan emigrated, to work at the Buena Vista Cafe, in San Francisco.[14][6][15][16][17][18][17][19][20][21][22][23][24][excessive citations]

Other claims[edit]

Tom Bergin's Tavern[25] in Los Angeles,[26] also claims to have been the originator[27] and has had a large sign in place reading "House of Irish Coffee" since the early 1950s.[28][29]

Other sources claim that Joe Jackson perfected the recipe at Jacksons Hotel, Ballybofey, Co. Donegal.[30]

Earlier coffee and alcohol cocktails[edit]

From the mid 19th century, the Pharisäer and the Fiaker were served in Viennese coffee houses, both coffee cocktails served in glass, topped with whipped cream. The former was also known in northern Germany and Denmark around this time. Around the turn of the 20th century the coffee cocktail menu in the Viennese cafés also included Kaisermelange, Maria Theresia, Biedermeier-Kaffee and a handful of other variations on the theme.[citation needed]

In 19th-century France, a mixture of coffee and spirits was called a gloria.

  • "Un trait de son caractère était de payer généreusement quinze francs par mois pour le gloria qu'il prenait au dessert." (Balzac, Le Père Goriot, 1834, I.)
  • "Il aimait le gros cidre, les gigots saignants, les glorias longuement battus." (Flaubert, Madame Bovary, 1857.)


Preparing an Irish coffee

Black coffee is poured into the mug. Whiskey and at least one level teaspoon of sugar is stirred in until fully dissolved. The sugar is essential for floating liquid cream on top.[31] Thick cream is carefully poured over the back of a spoon initially held just above the surface of the coffee and gradually raised a little.[32] The layer of cream will float on the coffee without mixing. The coffee is drunk through the layer of cream.


In 1988, the National Standards Authority of Ireland published Irish Standard I.S. 417: Irish Coffee.[a]

Although whiskey, coffee and cream are the basic ingredients in all Irish coffee, variations in preparation exist. The choice of coffee and the methods used for brewing it differ significantly. The use of espresso machines or fully automatic coffee brewers is now typical: the coffee is either a caffè americano (espresso diluted with hot water) or some kind of filter coffee, often made using a coffee capsule.

The cream used by some bars to make what is sold as "Irish coffee" is sometimes sprayed from a can. Some bartenders gently shake fresh cream to achieve a smooth layer atop the coffee.[citation needed]

In Spain, Irish coffee (café irlandés) is sometimes served with a bottom layer of whiskey, a separate coffee layer, and a layer of cream on top;[34] special devices are sold for making it.

Some bars in Southeast Asia serve a cocktail of iced coffee and whiskey, sometimes without cream, under the name "Irish coffee."

Many drinks of hot coffee with a distilled spirit, and cream floated on top—liqueur coffees—are given names derived from Irish coffee, although the names are not standardised. Irish cream coffee (a.k.a., Bailey's coffee) can be considered a variant of Irish coffee but involves the use of Irish cream as a "pre-mixed" substitute for the whisky, cream and sugar. Jamaican coffee would be expected to be made with rum. Highland coffee, also called Gaelic coffee, with Scotch whisky, and so on.

See also[edit]

  1. ^ The standard can be obtained from Standards IE.[33]


  1. ^ Irish coffee recipe, IBA, archived from the original on 2015-03-07 , specifying brown sugar, and that fresh cream should be floated on top.
  2. ^ Coyle, Cathal (1 December 2014). "Little Book of Tyrone". The History Press – via Google Books. 
  3. ^ "The War Room - Foynes Flying Boat Base". 
  4. ^ a b Our Irish Coffee Heritage, Foynes Flying Boat Museum, archived from the original on 2011-01-22 .
  5. ^ Joseph, Peter (12 January 2018). "Boozy Brunch: The Quintessential Guide to Daytime Drinking". Rowman & Littlefield – via Google Books. 
  6. ^ a b c "Irish Coffee Festival". 15 February 2003. 
  7. ^ "Irish Coffee", European Cuisines .
  8. ^ "Foynes Irish Coffee Centre". Foynes Flying Boat & Maritime Museum. Retrieved 2018-01-12. 
  9. ^ Nolte, Carl (November 22, 2006). "San Francisco: Coffee, cream, sugar and — Irish whiskey... but Buena Vista changed brands". San Francisco Chronicle. SF Gate. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  10. ^ Nolte, Carl (November 9, 2008). "The man who brought Irish coffee to America". San Francisco Chronicle. SF Gate. 
  11. ^ King, John (November 9, 2008). "SF bar celebrates 56 years of Irish coffee". San Francisco Chronicle. SF Gate. 
  12. ^ Garvey, John; Hanning, Karen (2008). Irish San Francisco. Arcadia. ISBN 978-0-7385-3049-9. 
  13. ^ Nolte, Carl (November 16, 2002). "Java the Irish way: 50 years ago, a new drink was born in an SF cafe". San Francisco Chronicle. SF Gate. 
  14. ^ "Foynes Flying Boat Museum". 16 May 2011. 
  15. ^ "Irish Coffee Kitchen Recipes Irish culture and customs - World Cultures European". 
  16. ^ "The Boozy History of Irish Coffee". 
  17. ^ a b "S3 Episode 2: The History of Irish Coffee - Boise Coffee". 21 March 2017. 
  18. ^ "The True History of Irish Coffee and Its San Francisco Origins". 16 November 2017. 
  19. ^ "Luck of the Irish...Irish Coffee That Is - Travel Gluttons". 
  20. ^ Stradley, Linda (15 April 2015). "Irish Coffee Recipe and History, Whats Cooking America". 
  21. ^ "The real story about Irish coffee and how it was invented". 29 June 2017. 
  22. ^ "The Sea Planes Land". 
  23. ^ "Learning How to Make Irish Coffee Where it was Invented". 23 January 2014. 
  24. ^ "Irish Coffee". 
  25. ^ "Tom Bergin's Tavern - L.A. -". 11 March 2007. 
  26. ^ "Recipe In Memoriam: The Late (*sniff) Tom Bergin's Irish Coffee - Los Angeles Magazine". 10 July 2013. 
  27. ^ "The 6 best Irish coffees in Los Angeles". 
  28. ^ "Learn How To Make Tom Bergin's Iconic Irish Coffee The Right Way". 
  29. ^ "Photos: The Legends Behind Tom Bergin's Public House, Celebrating 80 Years". 
  30. ^ "Celebrate the invention of Irish", Donegal democrat, IE, archived from the original on 2009-08-30 .
  31. ^ "Joe Sheridan's Original Irish Coffee Recipe". Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  32. ^ "Traditional Irish Coffee Recipe". Good food Ireland. Retrieved 2009-12-08. 
  33. ^ Standards, IE .
  34. ^ "Recipes", Gastronomia vasca, archived from the original on 2003-10-04 .

External links[edit]

Costa Coffee - Wikipedia

Costa Coffee shop in Sutton High Street, London

Costa Coffee is a British multinational coffeehouse company headquartered in Dunstable, Bedfordshire, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Whitbread. It is the second largest coffeehouse chain in the world behind Starbucks and the largest in the UK.[2]

Costa Coffee was founded in London in 1971 by the Costa family as a wholesale operation supplying roasted coffee to caterers and specialist Italian coffee shops. Acquired by Whitbread in 1995, it has since grown to 3,401 stores across 31 countries. The business has 2,121 UK restaurants, over 6,000 Costa Express vending facilities and a further 1,280 outlets overseas (including 395 in China).[1][3]


Italian immigrant brothers Bruno and Sergio Costa founded a coffee roastery in Lambeth, Central London, in 1971, supplying local caterers. The family had moved to England in the 1960s.[4][5] Costa branched out to selling coffee in 1978, when its first store opened in Vauxhall Bridge Road, London.

In 1985, Sergio bought out Bruno's share of the company. Bruno went on to found a tableware company.[6] By 1995, the chain had 41 stores in UK.[7] In 1995, the business was acquired by Whitbread, the UK's largest hotel and coffee shop operator, becoming a wholly owned subsidiary. In 2009, Costa opened its 1,000th store in Cardiff. In December 2009, Costa Coffee agreed to acquire Coffee Heaven for £36 million, adding 79 stores in central and eastern Europe.[8]



A flat white coffee with feather pattern, crafted by a Costa Coffee barista in London A Costa Coffee branch in Forster Square Retail Park, Bradford A standard Costa Coffee branch in Cyprus

Costa Coffee operates 2,121 outlets in the United Kingdom as of May 2016. Internationally, it operates 1,280 stores throughout the world in 31 countries.[9] The first Costa store outside the UK opened in Dubai in 1999[10] and, in September 2017, was the first coffee shop worldwide to start delivering coffee via drones to customers sunbathing on Dubai beaches.[11]

Costa Express[edit]

Following Whitbread's £59.5m acquisition of Coffee Nation, a chain of coffee machines, the machines were re-branded as Costa Express.[12] The company plans to expand to target hospitals, universities and transport interchanges.[13] In Canada, Costa Express machines are located in Shell stations.

Coffee production[edit]

Coffee served in a Massimo cup.

Costa Coffee moved its own roastery from Lambeth to Basildon, Essex, in May 2017 with an investment of £38 million, increasing the roasting capacity from 11,000 to 45,000 tons of coffee beans per year.[14]

Costa Coffee employs Gennaro Pelliccia as a coffee taster, who had his tongue insured for £10m with Lloyd's of London in 2009.[15][16]

Costa Book Awards[edit]

Costa Coffee has been the sponsor of the Costa Book Awards (formerly the Whitbread Book Awards) since 2006.[17]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Media related to Costa Coffee at Wikimedia Commons

T-coffee - Wikipedia

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